What is in the differential for her R eye pain and blurry vision?
Our patient had enlargement of the lacrimal gland thought to be ANCA negative Wegener’s granulomatosis ( now known as granulomatosis with polyangiitis). She had four episodes of swelling of the lacrimal gland since 2015 all of which responded to steroids. The ct showed enlargement of the gland as well as stranding surrounding it.
The diagnosis of Wegener’s is often made by biopsies of the upper respiratory tract but the yield of these biopsies for making the diagnosis is only 50%. It often involves the lungs or kidneys and biopsies of those sites more often reveal the diagnosis. Since 1982, when ANCAs (anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies ) were first described this blood test has been used to diagnose Wegener’s. The C-ANCA or cytoplasmic antibody directed against serine proteinase 3 is most specific. It is thought that tumor necrosis factor causes serine proteinase to be expressed on the surface of neutrophils and these are the targets for ANCA. When serine proteinase combines with ANCA oxygen radicals are created which damage blood vessels.
Eye manifestations occur in about 50% of patients with the disease. Focal vasculitis will produce conjunctivitis, episcleritis, uveitis and granulomatous vasculitis of the retina and optic nerve as well as lacrimal gland enlargement. Eye and upper respiratory tract disease, i.e. sinus disease, may occur years before lung and kidney involvement.
DIFFERENTIAL OF LACRIMAL GLAND ENLARGEMENT
ACUTE- bacterial infection, mumps, Epstein barr, gonorrhea and staph, tuberculosis
CHRONIC- Sjogrens, thyroid disease, orbital pseudotumor, Wegener’s, Behcet’s,sickle cell disease, amyloid
TUMORS- adenocystic CA, squamous CA, lymphoma
Our patient was treated with antibiotics in the ED which had no effect and was switched to steroids with resolution of her swelling.
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